Monday, May 18, 2020
By the end of the 21st century steroids will be permitted in every professional sport. Professional sports can put as many limitations on what athletes can take but it will never be enough. Many athletes will have enough money to overcome these limitations. They may still get caught with the drugs but they have enough money to control the media so people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t see what they did. There is only one way to level the playing field. The only way is to make steroids legal in professional sports. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Why itÃ¢â¬â¢s Time to Legalize Steroids in Professional SportsÃ¢â¬ by Chris Smith, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Not only would the playing field suddenly be even for all players, it would be at a higher level.Ã¢â¬ I think that this is exactly true. Legalizing steroids would make the sports more entertaining. Athletes in the sport will be able to play at a higher level. Chris Smith also said, Ã¢â¬Å"It also makes sense for professional sports to allow steroids from a busin ess standpoint.Ã¢â¬ People will pay more money to watch the upper level athletes perform. If steroids were legal it would make drug stores more money because more people would be buying steroids. Not only will the legalization of steroids benefit the sport, it will benefit other businesses as well. Athletes will have a choice of if they want to do steroids or not. There are many side effects of using steroids. One of the side effects is that the body will stop producing natural testosterone. The next side effect is that steroids cause
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Introduction A condition of modern times, obesity is said to be the greatest epidemic currently facing humanity (WHO, 2003; Hill, 2007). Obesity is one of the most frequent causes of preventable death in developed nations (Bauer et al., 2014), with the United States being home to over 150 million overweight or obese individuals Ã¢â¬â 65% of the adult population (Flegel, 2002; US Census Bureau, 2010). Obesity is often caused by a mismatch between energy intake and usage, thus it is frequently seen in those who live a sedentary lifestyle (Hu, 2003), such as the patient in this scenario. Obesity is now a major public health concern and has recently been voted by the American Medical Association to be classified as a Ã¢â¬ËdiseaseÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dailey, 2013). Indeed, the cost of obesity to the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was estimated to be Ã £15.8 billion, with Ã £4.2 billion in direct costs to the National Health Service (Public Health England, 2007). 1) Definition and classification of obesit y Definition Obesity is a medical condition in which excess fat is accumulated by the body, to the extent that it may have a negative impact on health (Haslam and James, 2005). The patient in the scenario clearly understands this aspect of obesity, as he mentions that he is Ã¢â¬ËworriedÃ¢â¬â¢ about gaining weight. Use of body mass index to define obesity A more objective definition of obesity involves the use of body mass index (BMI), which is given by the following equation: where m is height (meters) and hShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Teenage Obesity Essay1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTeenage obesity is rising significantly not only in the New Zealand but all throughout the world. It is growing epidemic and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a terrible thing. Watching a teenager wobble around all day out of breath and struggling to manage the stairs at school something no one should ever witness but with 18%Ã¢ ´ of teenagers obese itÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming a more common site everyday. Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases and it can lead to more serious problem in the end and can be fatal that can cause even deathRead MoreHealth Risks Of The United States Essay1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbesiege Americans are fought by creating a vaccination or an antibiotic that can be administered to all who are infected, one of the greatest health risks facing AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s nation today is sadly an epidemic, not just of a physical nature but often times also with behavioral origins , and whose eradication has been one of the most difficult our nation faces. Obesity in the United States has increased with alarming rates over the last few decades, which has impacted our nation on several levels, includingRead MoreObesity : A Serious Health Condition1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesObesity is a serious health condition that, if left untreated, causes serious health conditions. Contrary to popular belief, obesity is more than a condition caused by overeating and lack of exercise (Vallor 2013). Obesity is a disease (Callahan 2013); a disease that Americans are spending about $150 billion on annually (Zamosky 2013). Additionally, changing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s diet and exercise regimen may not be effective in some cases of obesity (Vallor 2013). Obesity is not like most well-known diseases;Read MoreEssay on The Obesity Epidemic 1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages How would you feel if I told you that there is no one state with an obesity rate lower than 20%? Take this information and compare it to twenty years ago when every state had an obesity rate lower than 15%. Obesity has become not only the number one cause in death, but according to David Zinczenko, editor-in-chief of MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health and author of Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Blame the EaterÃ¢â¬ , it is the number one cost in health care with numbers rising well over 100 billion dollars a year (196). There are manyRead MoreEquity Theory and Childhood Obesity1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesforce within the workplace, and a significant barrier to intimacy in personal relationships. This tends to complicate the manner in which managers interact with employees to find ways (salary, praise, training, education, experience) to allow for the greatest possible productivity, or for interpersonal relationships to actualize (Montana and Chanrov, 2008). For the individual to perceive themselves as being treated fairly, that individual must believe that the ratio of his inputs to his outcomes toRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects On Children And Adolescents1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesas physical inactivity, results in an energy imbalance and can lead to a major social issue of childhood obesity. The World Health Organization defines childhood obesity as a Ã¢â¬Ëserious medical condition consisting in excess body fat that affects children and adolescents.Ã¢â¬â¢ To address this problem, assessing the factors that have been suggested as contributing to the development of childhood obesity is vital. Some of these include genetic factors, declining levels of physical activity, increased timeRead More Causes of Childhood Obesity Essay1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages8-year old daughters obesity, a prideful mother replies Oh its no big deal, she just still has her baby fat. Unfortunately, chances are that the daughters obesity is not ca used by her baby fat, but can be contributed to a combination of diet, genetics, and a sedentary lifestyle. Studies show that obesity among children 6-17 years of age, has increased by 50% in the last 20 years, with the most dramatic increase seen in children ages 6-11 (Axmaker, 1). This obvious epidemic has raised great concernRead MoreCauses of Childhood Obesity Essay1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCauses of Childhood Obesity Works Cited Axmaker, Larry. Childhood Obesity Should be Taken Seriously. Online Posting 24 November 2004. Accessed 9 April 2005. 1-4. Bastin, Sandra. Perils of Childhood Obesity. American Academy of Pediatrics Quarterly. Volume 31 (11/2001): 44-49. Retrieved Medline 9 April 2005. 1-5. Buffington, Cynthia. Causes of Childhood Obesity. Beyond Change: Information Regarding Obesity and Obesity Surgery. Volume 17 (12/2003): 12-17. Retrieved AcademicRead MoreObesity Is A Problem That Is Faced Amongst Many Individuals Across The World Essay1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Obesity is a problem that is faced amongst many individuals across the world. Obesity is a serious health and societal issue that is rising at extreme rates, some may call it an epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a global problem, with almost 30 percent of people globally are now either obese or overweight which is affecting an estimate of 2.1 billion people worldwide and itÃ¢â¬â¢s prevalence in the recent decade had a rapid increase. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a well-known fact that the oddsRead MoreObesity in the United States1115 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the United States today, obesity has become an enormous burden on both the health and healthcare of those affected. In the last 3 dec ades, the number of people overweight has increased dramatically. According to the Centers of Disease Control, as of 2013, 34.9% of our population is considered overweight or obese. America is the richest yet the fattest nation in the world, and our obese backsides are the butt of jokes in every other country (Klein, 1994). Obesity is defined as having excess body
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Labor force Ã¯â ¾ the measure of the number of people actively involved in the labor marketÃ¯â ¾ is a topic of concern for economists (Bullard 1). Since the financial crisis and Great Recession of 2009, economists are closely observing the changing nature of the labor force in the United States, in an effort to understand sources of future economic growth. This topic is of major interest because of its sharp decline after the Recession of 2007-2009, in comparison to the Great Depression. Labor force participation rate is a ratio in which the labor force is divided by the civilian non-institutional population 16 years of age or older. During an economic recession, unemployed workers get discouraged and stop looking for employment, dropping the participation rate drastically. Labor force participation used to be relatively low, it decreased during the 1970s 1980s, and 1990s, rising in 2000 and declining once again in late 2000 (Bullard 4). Ã¢â¬Å"In early 2007, 66% of Americans were in the labor force. After the recession struck, participation tumbled, falling to 64% by 2012. By September 2015 it had hit 62.4%Ã¯â ¾ its lowest since 1977Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Force AwakensÃ¢â¬ ). However, throughout this year the number of employment has risen as result of increasing participation from Americans into the labor force, pushing the rate back up .6%. This means that the economy has created 215,000 net new jobs in March, decreasing unemployment from 5.1% in September 2015 to 5% in April 2016 (Ã¢â¬Å"The Force AwakensÃ¢â¬ ).Show MoreRelatedThe Labor Movement Of The United States Essay2036 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe labor movement in the United States has had a turbulent history with not being equal to all in society. A key demographic that has fought for equality up to the present day is women. 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string(69) " performance with a stop watch then it is probably not a competency\." Military profession can be considered as one of the oldest professions in the world. It had been a feature of societies throughout history where certain groups of people were entrusted with the responsibility of defending the state. The military profession today however, differs in many aspects from the military of the late eighteenth century in the sense that recruitment is based on education and skill rather than on the basis of social origins. We will write a custom essay sample on Cbta or any similar topic only for you Order Now Military men today work on a full-time basis instead of regarding military service as a part-time vocation or hobby. All professions are expected to maintain a certain level of competency and will be reprimanded or reject outright if they do not measure up to the required professional standards. The military profession must maintain high standards of performance in the eyes of the general public in order to hold its credibility and professional standing. Over the years, western writers like Huntington (1957), Janowitz (1971) and Sarkesian (1975) had given their views on the subject of military profession and professionalism. They had identified the following general characteristics of military professionalism which are organizational structure, special knowledge, education and training, self-regulation and commitment. The Malaysian Army had rise up to the challenge in addressing the issues of military professionalism among its personnel. All the characteristics of military professionalism mentioned earlier are being addressed seriously by the Army. Thus, one of the measures taken by the Army that the best place to start inculcating professionalism among the soldiers should start at the training centers. The Army has 17 training institutions all over the country and in 2011 the budget allocated for the Markas Pemerintahan Latihan dan Doktrin Tentera Darat was $22. 7 million. With 250 courses and 441 series of courses in 2011, the number of soldiers trained in year 2011 was approximately 16,000. This is a significant figure that can be considered as products of the Malaysian Army. Therefore, the Army has taken an approach by introducing the Competency Based Training and Assessment (CBTA) as a measure to increase the level of professionalism among its personnel. CBTA is not a new approach in training. It has been a nationwide move by the Ministry of Human Resources. Malaysia, along with the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden and Germany were the main players in implementing CBTA since year 2000. The introduction of the National Skills Certification System in 1993 by the Majlis Latihan Vokasional Kebangsaan (MLVK) and the soon to be implemented National Skills Development Act by the Ministry of Human Resources as well as the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) by the Ministry of Higher Education will serve to restructure and streamline the national vocational and skills training in the country towards meeting the demands of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s job tasks more effectively. Its introduction is indeed timely, given the high priority that it places on the area of human resource development. With the emphasis towards preparing trained and qualified skilled workforce to support the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development, therefore, the more flexible framework of national skills recognition and qualifications is necessary to promote a conducive training culture for the personal motivation of skilled workers, which would hence lead to the overall upgrading of competencies amongst the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s skilled workforce. Competency based learning has been the basis of most training and has been practiced in most countries. The Roman Army for example, were masters of competency training as applied to large groups and their effectiveness in delivering such training was a major contributor to their military success. A perfect description of competency training is as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Their drills are like bloodless battles, and their battles are like bloody drills. Ã¢â¬ Joseph Ben-Matthias, aka Flavius Josephus The terms of CBTA have many variations. Some countries know it as Competency Based Learning (CBL) and some countries call it Competency Based Training (CBT). Nevertheless, competency is the main keyword. CBT was a critical factor in the US ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to train several million young men during World War II. With the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1942, the US Military was faced with the requirement to train millions of young men for its rapidly expanding armed forces. This rapid expansion required a method for quickly providing people with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to do a particular job. Using variations of CBT, millions of young men were trained, shipped to Europe or the Pacific and due to their training played a major role in the defeat of Germany and Japan. The role of training in enabling the US Military to expand from a very small army to one of several millions in only a short period of time is mainly due to the effectiveness of CBT. The Vocational Education, Employment and Training Advisory Committee of Australia, sees CBTA as Ã¢â¬Å"training geared to the attainment and demonstration of skills to meet industry-specified standards rather than to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement relative to that of others in a groupÃ¢â¬ . CBTA is basically a scientific approach to training that relies on identifying the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to do a particular job, for example for an infantry soldier. The approach taken was to break each job down into groups of competencies. Competencies related to any particular job could be identified through a careful process of training analysis in terms of performance, conditions and standards. For example an infantry soldier might be required to perform firing of a rifle. The conditions required to fire the rifle at various conditions and positions. Example of standards required are, during day on a range at one hundred meters score fifty hits on a target measuring three foot high two foot wide, while standing. There is considerable debate as to what actually makes a competency, but for general purposes it can be identified as a readily identified group of related knowledge, skills and attitudes, which taken together constitute a major part of a job which is subject to measurement and assessment. Generally if you cannot measure performance with a stop watch then it is probably not a competency. You read "Cbta" in category "Essay examples" To give an example, firing a rifle in terms of infantry training can be regarded as a competency. It is a major part of an infantry manÃ¢â¬â¢s job. It can be measured in terms of performance, conditions and standards and you can put a stop watch to it. For example, ten shots in the target within one minute. The Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) adopted CBTA based on the concept implemented by the Australian Defence Forces (ADF). The ADF practiced the CBTA concept since year 1996. The MAF, realizing the need to revamp the approach towards training, started the initiative towards CBTA in 2002 and started implementing CBTA in year 2007. The introduction of CBTA in the Army training programs has lead to the establishment of the Malaysian Army Competency Standard (MACS). It is a document that underlines the necessities and requirements that must be obtained by a soldier in their field of expertise. MACS will be assessed based on job proficiency in order to make sure soldiers can accomplish tasks at a level that can be accepted. The Army has identified that there are 318 career and functional courses based on the Armed Forces Code No 2 (AF Code No 2) that need to meet the requirement of MACS. Since the introduction of CBTA until end of year 2011, the number of soldiers who have qualified for the Malaysian Skills Certification (MSC) or also known as Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) from Army training institutions is 42,408 students. MSC or SKM is a certification structure which comprises of five levels National Skills Qualification Framework based on National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS). MACS development for the courses listed in the AF Code No 2 varies in terms of achieving SKM accreditation ranging from SKM Level 1 to 5. The strengths of implementing CBTA in the Army encompassed all the general characteristics of military professionalism mentioned earlier. In the area of education and training, once the competencies have been identified then it is relatively easy to structure a training course. You might break the competencies down into component tasks, for example before you can fire a rifle, you would have to learn how to strip and assemble that rifle. That particular task might be listed as a specific learning outcome which has to be performed before meeting the final competency of firing a rifle under specific conditions. It would then be relatively easy to structure a training course, which might involve initial training and then further Ã¢â¬ËOn-The-JobÃ¢â¬â¢ training (OJT), which would deliver to the Army, soldiers with the necessary competencies to do the job required. Implementation of CBTA also allows the Army training institution to produce a more comprehensive training package that take into account the core values of competency (knowledge, skill and attitude). Efficiency in managing training courses, effectiveness of course delivery and systematic evaluation or assessment, ensure the quality of training, hence ensuring the quality of soldiers. Evaluation of a soldier does not end only at a particular training institution, which is the main approach in conventional method of training. CBTA allows continuous evaluation in the form of competency log. This would ensure that a soldier does not only competent during training but also when performing task and duties at workplace. In addition, CBTA can also help the Army to develop a good organizational structure as part of achieving military professionalism. Job analysis and job specification which have been identified during CBTA process, allows the Army to have the right person for the right job. This would allow the Army to identify what sort of competency and soldiers it needs in its organizational hierarchy. Improvements have also been made on Army training centers organizational structure. Moreover, besides having at least an officer responsible on CBTA at each of the Army training institutions, the Army also has started grooming its staff and instructors on what CBTA is all about. In year 2011, there were 5 courses conducted in the Army which aimed to increase the knowledge of the staffs and instructors. The courses were, Pegawai Latihan Vokasional (3 series), Induksi Pentauliahan Persijilan Kemahiran (3 series), Course of Study (4 series), Basic Instructor Methodology (1 series) and Kursus Induksi Pegawai Pengesahan Luaran Vokasional (1 series). These courses would lead the Army to ensure that CBTA is well understood, taught and implemented. As a result, the objectives of CBTA implementation can be achieved. Military professionalism should not only be accepted among military personnel but it must be recognized by the general public. CBTA has allowed military professionalism to be accepted and recognized. The implementation of CBTA in the Army is consistent with the requirement of MLVK. Adoption of CBTA provides soldiers with another qualification path and career development opportunity that has been established in line with the academic qualification structure. In other words, this means that the double qualification structure is based on two types of qualifications, namely the academic qualification and the skills qualification that are available in this country today. The emergence of this new skills qualification structure has opened up a whole new set of opportunities for all soldiers after completing their service in the Army. In addition, it also caters to soldiers who have no qualifications to show despite having years of working experience. As an example, PULMAT has able to get SKM accreditation of SKM Level 4 for its Souse Chef course. It is the highest level of SKM accreditation achieved among all the 318 courses conducted by Army training institutions. Attaining SKM Level 4 accreditation is equivalent to a diploma based on NOSS. Therefore, it can be said that soldiers who have achieved competency in the course is at par with others in the business environment or the labour market. They would also have a better career path after completing military service if they decided to pursue any job with similar competency level. A lot of discussions have been made regarding to the advantages and strengths of CBTA in having the Army desired results. Nevertheless, CBTA also have some weaknesses in heading to higher level of professionalism in the Army. Looking at the milestone and achievement of CBTA in the Army until today, the figures and statistics can be said to the extent of they are alarming. Out of the 17 Army training institutions, only 9 training centers or about 50% are considered accredited training centers. They are IKED, IKEM, IJED, PULMAT, PULNORD, PULAPOT, PULPAK, PULADA and IPDA. These training centers have in total of 42 courses out of 318 courses that have been accredited with SKM certification. This only made up to approximately 13% out courses listed in the AF Code No 2. Only one course managed to get SKM Level 4, 13 courses at SKM Level 3 and 28 courses with SKM Level 1 to Level 2. IJED has the most courses in terms that are accredited with the national level SKM. Based on the AF Code No 2, year 2011, out of the 21 courses were conducted by IJED, 12 courses are accredited with national SKM. In addition, IKEM and PULMAT have 7 courses each with national SKM accreditation. PULADA on the other hand, only have 1 course (Dog Unit Handler Course) which has achieved national SKM accreditation. This is very distressing figures for the Infantry Corps in terms of where is the future of Infantrymen during their service and once they leave the service. The competence level of Infantrymen should portray the professionalism of the Army since most Infantry officers would end up as top brass in the Army. As for the future of Infantrymen after their service, the Army must take a necessary action to in order to ensure that Infantry soldiers have a decent competency to compete in the labour market, especially for the other ranks where they would normally retire by the age of 45 and still need to work to support their family. With only 1 course accredited (SKM Level 2) out of 18 courses conducted by PULADA, CBTA can be said as failed to increase the level of professionalism for the Infantrymen. Only those who have the technical skills and knowledge while serving in Corps such as KJLJD and KPD would reap the benefits of CBTA. With majority of Army personnel were only trained at SKM Level 1 and 2, one lead to wonder how SKM Level 1 and Level 2, help the Army to increase professionalism among its personnel. The general guideline of SKM level is as the following diagram. SKM Level 1 and Level 2 are categorized as in the operation and production level in terms of category of personnel. These are the level where most of Army personnel managed to obtain SKM certification from attending courses in year 2011. In year 2011, 4,800 Army personnel obtained SKM certification. Only 11% (550 personnel) obtained SKM Level 3, 32% (1,516 personnel) obtained SKM Level 2 and 57% (2,734 personnel) obtained SKM Level 1. Thus, referring back to the general characteristics of military professionalism, if the Army considers having most of its personnel achieving SKM Level 1 and Level 2 as increment in professionalism, then CBTA would have met its objective. Nevertheless, military professionalism is more than just special skills as in SKM Level 1 and Level 2. The Army should be looking at aiming for at least SKM Level 3 in order to increase some level of professionalism. SKM Level 3 will allow soldiers to have the three categories of personnel as shown in the diagram. The categories are skills, related/management skills and supervisory skills. Mastering them would lead to achieving military professionalism. When the MAF adopted CBTA, the general guideline of SKM competency has been laid out based on rank structure. SKM Level 1 for the rank of Private and Lance Corporal, Level 2 for Corporal, Level 3 for Sergeant and Staff Sergeant, Level 4 for Warren Officers and Level 5 for Officers. It can be said that some courses in the Army failed to meet the guideline. As an example, the Section Commander course conducted at PULADA, is only developed to achieve SKM Level 2. Thus, for the Infantry Corps, most of its sergeants would have SKM Level 2 instead of SKM Level 3 as required by the MAF. This should be a major concern for the Infantry Corps because it has the most number of personnel in the Army. The number of personnel with the rank of sergeant in the Infantry Corps is approximately 1,500 personnel. In the Infantry Standard Battalion, personnel holding the rank of sergeant are 56% (57 personnel) out of the 102 Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) in the battalion. The Infantry Section Commander course at PULADA basically focus on field application and tactics and not so much focus on managerial and administrative duties at the battalion. The managerial and administrative duties are covered mostly during the Pegawai Tidak Tauliah Rendah (PTTR) course at IPDA. Nevertheless, an infantry soldier is qualified to be given the rank of sergeant once he completed the Infantry Section Commander course. In an Infantry battalion, he is responsible to manage 7 personnel in his section. In year 2011, PULADA conducted 3 series of the Infantry Section Commander course with total number of approximately 300 students. The 300 personnel would have little knowledge of managerial and administrative duties due to normal practice applied in an Infantry Battalion is that a soldier will go for PTTR course once he completed the Infantry Section Commander course and if the he is planned to be promoted to the rank of Staff Sergeant. Moreover, on average only 100 bits are given to Infantry Corps per year for the PTTR course. In comparison to the 300 personnel attended the Infantry Section Commander Course per year, less than 50% would have the chance to attend the PTTR course. Hence, approximately 200 personnel would not be competent enough to manage a section of soldiers in the Infantry Battalion. In the Sistem Saraan Malaysia (SSM), a Sergeant in the Infantry Battalion will have to complete the PTTR course if he wishes to have a better pay. He will be given the P2 salary for the rank of Sergeant. Therefore, it can be said that money could be the motivational level to attend the PTTR course. That motivation would force the learning of managerial and administrative knowledge during PTTR course where in return, it would make the Sergeant a better soldier, increasing his level of professionalism. Thus, it leads to the question on the new SBPA salary structure system where salary of P2 no longer applies. There could be personnel by the rank of Sergeant no longer wish to attend the PTTR course if they feel that they would not be promoted to the rank of Staff Sergeant. Hence, it can be said to the extent that without the PTTR course they would be less professional. For an Infantry Battalion, the 57 Sergeant would not have the competency to manage approximately 500 soldiers in the battalion if no one attends the PTTR course. The chain reaction effect of this issue is that officers would have a larger responsibility in ensuring military professionalism is carried out in the Army. The responsibility supposedly to be shared among the NCOs and Officers in order to have a well structured organization as required in achieving military professionalism. Another area where CBTA is seen as does not promote the sense of professionalism is in terms of leadership training. CBTA is not effective when used as a basis for training in areas such as leadership, and management where it is almost impossible to measure competency in terms of clearly defined behaviors that contribute to effective management and leadership, hence affecting the characteristics of military professionalism. Such areas still rely on a subjective assessment made by experts in the field. For example many special forces training courses do use competencies as part of the training package where these competencies relate to measurable behaviors. Literally behaviors which can be measured with a stopwatch. However, the final assessment must be subjective. Such assessment could take the form of a group of experts examining each individual and asking a question that can only be answered subjectively such as Ã¢â¬Ëwould you go to war with this manÃ¢â¬â¢. If the answer is no, then it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter how many behavioral competencies the individual has passed, he is not suitable. Such subjective assessment is probably still appropriate in assessing candidates for jobs where qualities are required that can only be defined subjectively by experts. For example priest, teacher, military officer or a flying instructor. All of these types of jobs require qualities that it is almost impossible to define in terms of behavior. It is hard to say what exactly a good leader is actually doing, but we know it when we see it. Attitude competencies generally fail because they can only be measured in the negative. For example, a competency might require the individual to demonstrate the right attitude to safety. Well you can easily measure the wrong attitude, if somebody lights a cigarette in a no smoking area, you have a behavior which clearly demonstrates a poor attitude to safety. But if the individual is not smoking, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t demonstrate a positive attitude, all it shows is that the person is not smoking. Officer training courses where students are aware that attitude is being assessed tend to lead to students falsifying their behaviors that they believe will be viewed in a positive light. For example demonstrating keenness by always smiling and being willing to do a task. Any assessment could only conclude that the person is competent at smiling and effective in using the language of volunteering, it says nothing about the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. The keen individual might well turn out to be displaying a competency in duplicitous behavior, which might well be useful but is hardly a trait likely to endear the individual to his or her subordinates. CBTA could also lead to soldiers feel complacent on their achievement. They only have to achieve competence level since the evaluation is either he is competent or not yet competent. In contrast, the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) adopted the Competency Based Learning (CBL) and has a different competence level assessment. The differences between the MalaysianÃ¢â¬â¢s Army CBTA are that the SAFÃ¢â¬â¢s CBL evaluate performance based on five level of competency. The levels are, Novice/Advance Beginner, Competent, Proficient and Expert. The SAF feels that these are the necessary levels that should be assessed in CBL especially leadership training. Therefore, the Malaysian Army leadership training could be hampered in increasing level of professionalism due to soldiers feel that they only have to be assessed as competent. In order to excel, one should not feel complacent but try to bring the best out of him. In conclusion, the Malaysian Army should have a well defined terms and definition of military professionalism. From there, it would be able to understand how CBTA can improve the level of professionalism among its personnel. Based on the discussions, arguments and empirical evidence of CBTA achievements in the Army, it can be concluded that the level of professionalism could be increased solely by implementation of CBTA. Nevertheless, it does not mean that CBTA has failed in terms of its objectives, it merely need a minor overhaul in terms of the SKM level needed by Army personnel in achieving professionalism. 3894 words) REFERENCES 1. Janowitz, Morris, The Professional Soldier, The Free Press, New York, 1971. 2. Huntington, Samuel P. , The Soldier and the Slate, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1957. 3. Sarkesian, Sam C. , The Professional Army officer in a Changing Society, Nelson-Hall Publishers, Chicago, 1975. 4. Ramatahan, K. , Leadership Development Through the Singapor e Armed Forces (SAF) Competency Based Learning Project, SAFTI Military Institute, Singapore, 2000. 5. Annual Report, Laporan Perkembangan Latihan dan Penilaian Berasaskan Kompetensi (LPBK) Tahun 2011, MK LAT-BPL(MLVK)/G3/3001/5(71) dated Feb 2012. 6. MACS Report, Pembangunan Standard Kompetensi Tentera Darat (SKTD) Untuk Tugas Penolong Ketua Platun Infantri Dan Ketua Seksyen Infantri, MK-TD Jab Inf, Kuala Lumpur, Jul 2008. 7. Paper Work, Konsep Strategi dan Perlaksanaan LPBK Dalam Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, MATM/J1CTK/A/238/8 dated 12 Dis 2005. 8. AF Code No 2, Jadual Kursus Tempatan Tahun 2011, Markas Pemerintahan Latihan dan Doktrin Tentera Darat, Kuala Lumpur, 2011. How to cite Cbta, Essay examples
Question: Discuss the Group Work Advantage Explain how these Advanges help the University/High school students to become Successfull. Answer: Introduction To work in a team is a very common element of any business environment and may become an approach that organizations take for particular work, accountabilities or some special cases. It can usually be challenging for many types of personalities or types to work together on a common set of objectives; it has some advantages as well which impact the company as well as the people attached to it (Hillyard et al., 2010). The main benefits of group work are more than simple business focused, and there are normally some kinds of advantages for the workforce as well. The group work advantages Share ideas and innovation: one of the biggest advantages of group work or any team culture is the overall capacity to share multiple ideas among the groups. Most probably there are many possible approaches for the projects and as people; a staff member can be unaware of which one can take. At the same time, as a team, all the members can also be a part of different pros as well as cons of the principles to work and way to achieve the necessary goals (Hillyard et al., 2010). Increased level of efficiency: Other main advantages of the group work it helps in getting thing much faster. When any group starts working on a project or function, it can be done in a rapid manner and plus with the great amount of efficiency (Long Porter, 1985). Responsibility for weak areas: working in a team not just assist to show people many kinds of strengths but is also permit for high compensation of many weak cases. Member of a team can share the work so that people can show their strengths with the work and collaborate to solve the weak areas. Improvement in office companionship: when people work at one place as a team, they are not just becoming more invested in the work, but they are also coming closer to one another (Long Porter, 1985). The team also supports one another and tries to help each other even outside the team structure and also be able to adapt one another's working methods. This can result in teamwork and different approaches external of the official structure of teamwork (Cohen Lotan, 2014). How these benefits help the university students to become successful Group work can assist students in some ways where they can easily develop a lot of skills that are very crucial in the professional world. Positivity in group experiences in addition to some learning, retention and complete success in colleges. Following are some the benefits for the students: - It helps them to break the whole task in small parts and steps easily. This way, they become more and more organized in dealing with things. It also helps in properly planning as well as managing the time. Teamwork also helps in refining the overall understanding through appropriate discussion (Widn-Wulff, 2014). A delegation of roles and responsibilities. Deal with difficult issues in a right manner. Generate an ability to settle a shared identity with so many members. Challenges that group faces while working in a team Following are some of the important challenges: - Conflict in diverse situations: when there are two or more than two positions that differ with one another, positions tends to get argued about the group, and it will not lead any solution. Communication problem and mistrust: when people in the team try to dominate the communication while other people silently sit or also appear to drop out from the conversation, it will impact the work culture and create a lot of mistrust in the team. Clashes in personality: in this situation, personal styles are unique and also cause a lot of conflict among the members of the team (Widn-Wulff, 2014). Power based problems and personal issues: conflict also arises when there are power based issues or strong agenda that must be dealt appropriately. The truth is that there is certain kind of people that does not fit on a team and a leader also requires having a will to eliminate them or also offer another position to them (Widn-Wulff, 2014). How these challenges does have an effect on groups Culture issues, as well as diversity based problems, usually clear their position as there is a breakdown in communication process or many kinds of interpersonal issues. The difference in communication behavior from one individual to another, the staff member can try to communicate indirectly while other people may prefer some nurturing approaches. The style of working also changes with someone with an extroverted personality that one might feel unhappy about working alone. Success in team association is constructed on mutual respect and taking a lot of time in listening every member of the team. It is also based on taking their opinion into consideration, and it is very crucial to instill a feeling of values in each member (Baines et al., 2016). How to overcome these challenges every member to take turn one by one to express their concern and doubts. Rest of the people can listen carefully and understand each other situation and reason for their behavior. One way to deal with mistrust is a leader coming forward and asks every member what their opinion and another method is to get a process observer. His job is to aim at how any team is communicating with one another (Levi, 2015). A team leader here also plays a crucial role in administering different behavior based assessment tools to assist people in properly understanding every member and learn to work with one another. The power issues don't happen on the regular interval, but on some occasion, it is required. The situation can be dealt with the team normally is a step forward. This can be an option only in the situation where other people attempts to work with people that have failed miserably (Levi, 2015). Conclusion There are many advantages for depending on the group work in the class and also sharing all the advantages with the students in a more transparent way which assisted the students to understand different methods to learn group work. It can also improve the learning process and also prepare them for many life-based experiences. Working is a group is usually a normal phenomenon for any workplace (Levi, 2015). As a matter of fact, employees learn a lot from working with a group as they work and pursue their career. When people work in a group, they learn a language in so many methods even when they may not understand the kind of changes it is bringing to them. There are so many advantages along with challenges for the company and as the organization, every firm look for these benefits. References Baines, E., Blatchford, P., Kutnick, P. (2016).Promoting effective group work in the primary classroom: A handbook for teachers and practitioners. Routledge. Cohen, E. G., Lotan, R. A. (2014).Designing Groupwork: Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom Third Edition. Teachers College Press. Hillyard, C., Gillespie, D. and Littig, P. (2010). University students' attitudes about learning in small groups after frequent participation.Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(1), pp.9-20. Levi, D. (2015).Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications. Long, M. H., Porter, P. A. (1985).Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 207-228. Widn-Wulff, G. (2014).The challenges of knowledge sharing in practice: a social approach. Elsevier.
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Write an essay on HSC Multicultural issue in healthcare. Answer: Introduction Diabetes mellitus is one of the prevalent diseases that have encircled the maximum amount of the human pool in its trap globally. In the US, this disease affects twenty-four million of individuals (Reidy et al., 2014). The patient with this illness cannot secrete enough insulin or cannot use the natural amount of insulin secreted properly. Insulin hormone regulates the blood sugar level in organisms. If the body has higher blood sugar level, it might be detrimental to the various parts of the body (Inzucchi et al., 2014). A patient with Diabetes might experience kidney failure. Diabetes injures the blood vessels in the kidney, leading to retention of more amounts of salt, water and waste materials (Sellares et al., 2012). This leads to various critical problems in the body. To manage this disease patients must adhere to specific treatments which include physical activity, dietary restrictions, self-monitoring of the level of glucose, etc. (Levey Coresh, 2012) The aim of this context is to review various studies based on the effects of Diabetes in our family with a particular focus on kidney failure. Further, the outcome of this disease and the plan of action that could be developed to take precaution and stay safe in life, work places, and the educational institute will be discussed. Method For this study, the author undertakes qualitative analysis including the literature research for supporting the argument and critically analyze on the chosen subject. PubMed, NCBI and Google Scholar are searched with keywords "Kidney failure", "Diabetes", "Diabetes care", Diabetes care and control, psychological impacts of kidney failure, Renal failure and depression, Diabetes management etc. Literature review Empirical studies reflect the fact that there is a significant and positive relationship between treatment adherence amongst diabetes patient and the social support (Vanmassenhove et al., 2013). Regarding the Diabetes patients, non-adherence is linked with reduced glycemic control, long-term complications including, neuropathy,retinopathy and renal disease (Jha et al., 2013). Diabetes mellitus show the close association with several renal infections which include emphysematous pyelonephritis and cystitis,"candidiasis and perinephric (Inzucchi et al., 2015). Individual studies revealed that Diabetes patients are five times more chances and frequency of "acute pyelonephritis at autopsy in comparison to the non-diabetics (Tonelli et al., 2014). Around seventy two percent of twenty patients in 1980 were observed to have chronic emphysematous cystitis (Jha et al., 2013). Acute urinary infections frequent in diabetic women since they have short urethra which is readily accessible to micro organisms (Vanmassenhove et al., 2013). The presence of this disease predisposes to certain severe infections in patients with less diabetic control, acute ketoacidosis, neuropathy, etc. (Fox et al., 2012). A literature review shows that if the cause of the renal failure is due to Diabetes, with urinary tract obstruction, then sepsis can produce a favorable outcome (Reidy et al., 2014). Moreover, NSAIDs drugs should be avoided in case of patients with Diabetes nephropathy (Inzucchi et al., 2015). One study reveals that the outcome of the renal failure was active, almost around forty-seven patients recovered from renal failure with appropriate treatment using renal transplantation (Fox et al., 2012). Studies reveal that if there exist a family history revolving kidney disease, then it can elevate the chances of a risk of diabetic nephropathy (Levey Coresh, 2012). But some procedures can be changed to lower the risk of diabetic nephropathy. These changes or prevention measures include controlling the increase in the blood sugar levels, controlling the weight, monitoring the disease related nerve or vision complications (Sellares et al., 2012). Kidney failure requires artificial means of excretion for survival as the result of which such patients undergo a "number of lifestyles, dietary, and fluid restrictions to accommodate their illness." According to (Buckingham, et al., 2013) such lifestyle changes and constraints disrupt the social functioning with patients struggling hard to maintain "vitamin, iron, and protein levels." (Finnegan-John Thomas, 2012) said that "such restrictions impact on patients' illness beliefs, sense of personal control leading to anxiety and depression, inhibiting coping, and adjustment." According to (Poppe et al., 2013) End-stage renal failure has the significant influence on family members, therefore, irrespective of age every patient needs family's support who are also affected by the lifestyle changes. There are several diabetic patients who want to manage the disease on their own, but family members also learn how to handle such disease living with and witnessing their affected loved ones (Finnegan-John Thomas, 2012). Several patients prefer to take self-care," for example, preparing their machines or needling their fistulas for hemodialysis treatment. Patients reported a sense of independence and autonomy which was critical in coping with the routine of therapy. An experienced patient can provide peer support and education. Social support and mental support from the family members provides practical help to the patients who can buffer the stresses to live with the illness (Hippisley-Cox Coupland, 2016). Studies conducted by Novo Nordisk named as Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 or (DAWN2) (Rosland et al., 2012). It intended to realize the unmet needs of diabetic patients and their families. The results of this study would enhance self-management and psychological support in diabetes care". According to this study, 60% of the relatives of diabetics undergo tremendous emotional stress worrying about the proposed complications likely to affect the person they are living with (Rosland et al., 2012). Non-adherence to medication in many cases has been reported to cause depression and other psychosocial effects in patients consequently impacting their family (Cole Reiss, 2013). ESRD also transforms personal relationships. A study by (Buckingham et al., 2013) shows that "Fatigue, infertility, low energy, and mood, physical changes to the body, for example, catheter, weight gain, and scarring, all played a role in undermining confidence and self-esteem. Sexual activity and intimacy we re also reported as significantly compromised requiring adjustment for both patients and their partners. Changes in perceptions of roles within the relationship were also evident." A similar study was published by Joslin in Diabetic Medicine, called theImpact of continuous glucose monitoring on diabetes management and marital relationships of adults with Type 1 diabetes and their spouses: a qualitative study (Cole Reiss, 2013). The majority of the "spouses" stay uneducated about such diseases and requirement of continuous glucose monitoring. It is the contributing factor in problems associated with management of diabetes (Levey Coresh 2012). According to (Chiang et al., 2014) family members should be included in the diabetes management else a due lack of knowledge and information they can never assist their loved ones in tackling the disorder. In this study, it was indicated that majority of the spouses are concerned about the hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Therefore, to reduce the anxiety and stress among spouses, it is mandatory for them to use CMG and understand its operation (Poppe et al., 2013). A study by Joslin indicated that "collaborative diabetes management and relationships with patients" are positively influenced by CMG as it helps in decreasing the anxiety in spouses due to higher awareness. Clinical studies by (Cole Reiss, 2013) identified that the cases in which family member regularly visited with the patient to clinics, management sessions and showed greater involvement were capable of creating an open home environment that suits easy management of diabetes. They were able to provide open discussing or dialogue and friendly support system to make patients more comfortable and stress-free (Rosland et al., 2012). Patients need a home environment that has more diabetes-friendly lifestyle (Inzucchi et al., 2015). People with diabetes crave for the atmosphere where the surrounding people are cognitive about their condition which in fact makes them they have collaborators and feel less alone (Jha et al., 2013). From the above literature review, it is apparent that psychological support is essential to assist patients in tackling lifestyle restrictions. It will, therefore, enhance "personal control through self-management strategies" which is critical, as outlined in the National Service Frameworks (Department of Health, 2005). According to NICE need assessment is important in creating an evidence base for developing a comprehensive health psychology service to run concurrently with a renal counseling support service as a means of responding to the recommendations made by the National Services Frameworks. Discussion and analysis The literature review has given an in-depth knowledge of the consequences of Diabetes and kidney failure and the role of family members in its management. The findings reveal that patients with renal impairment have the considerable impact on the quality of their life and give an insight into complexities, psychological and medical consequences of such chronic illness. Within the renal setting, patients with psychological distress should be supported and assisted by practitioners and psychologists to help enhance their coping style. It can be achieved by providing services or multidisciplinary care approaches which incorporate a holistic framework. In the next section, I am going to describe my personal experience with family. One of my maternal uncles John expired during my childhood and I went through a period of anxiety, depression, and chaos in my house. He died due to kidney failure, and I remember the experiences right from his final stage till his death, his family and friends struggling hard to save his life till his last breath but in vain, their pain, guilt, and agony faces still flashes in my mind. I learned a lesson with this incidence and was greatly influenced being close to him. Last year my other maternal uncle was diagnosed with diabetes. This time, everybody is more involved in his disease management including me. I accompany him when he goes to measure his A1C level, and I ensure that he takes his insulin injections and gets blood glucose monitoring on the timely basis. I always request him to not to miss on his urine test required for predicting Kidney disease. I always assist him in meal planning, performing physical activity and made sure he adhere to his medication. Mostly I cook for him only protein low diet. The family history of "diabetes and kidney failure" is a major risk factor for kidney disease and it is well known to run in families. Therefore, I insist my mother, father, and sister for the regular check-up to detect any signs kidney disease and be preventive. I do not want to undergo similar experiences once again in my life. I keep reading a lot shuffling through the journals, articles, magazines, and blogs finding out any modern therapy or curative medicines recently launched in the market with success rate. I keep informing friends and my family about the recent researches going on in this field to keep them updated, and I learn new recipes related to low protein diet which I prepare for my parents thrice a week. In order gain more knowledge on this subject, I consult my teachers, counselors, and professors to learn to be as much preventive as I could to enhance active and healthy lifestyle. Every morning since last year my parents and I are attending meditation classes. There are several positive changes in our lives; it has increased self-efficacy and self-esteem. I am sure we all will be able to manage adverse health issues by continuing such practices. Conclusion Living with "chronic illness such as kidney failure" can significantly compromise the "belief system" and undermines every phase of life. Several interventions have been developed to empower patients with ESRD, including educational programs and training sessions. Both parents and carers are acquiring good approaches and contacts to services required to empower them in managing their lifestyle and health (Rosland et al., 2012).It is essential that health care providers teach these patients that they are the leaders for their disease, how to control and that self-management care is not an easy task if they are not motivated. However, by assisting and following those on the regular basis will help these patients and their family to live a healthy lifestyle while becoming "their doctors in self-managing their condition." References: American Diabetes Association. (2013). Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2012.Diabetes care,36(4), 1033-1046. Buckingham, J. L., Donatelle, E. P., Thomas Jr, A., Scherger, J. E. (2013).Family medicine: principles and practice. R. Taylor (Ed.). Springer Science Business Media. Chiang, J. L., Kirkman, M. S., Laffel, L. M., Peters, A. L. (2014). Type 1 diabetes through the life span: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association.Diabetes Care,37(7), 2034-2054. Cole, R. E., Reiss, D. (Eds.). (2013).How do families cope with chronic illness?. Routledge. Finnegan-John, J., Thomas, V. J. (2012). The psychosocial experience of patients with end-stage renal disease and its impact on quality of life: findings from a needs assessment to shape a service.ISRN Nephrology,2013. Fox, C. S., Matsushita, K., Woodward, M., Bilo, H. J., Chalmers, J., Heerspink, H. J. L., ... Tonelli, M. (2012). Associations of kidney disease measure with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis.The Lancet,380(9854), 1662-1673. Hippisley-Cox, J., Coupland, C. (2016). Diabetes treatments and risk of amputation, blindness, severe kidney failure, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia: the open cohort study in primary care.BMJ,352, i1450. Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. 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Improving quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: influence of acceptance and personality.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation,28(1), 116-121. Reidy, K., Kang, H. M., Hostetter, T., Susztak, K. (2014). Molecular mechanisms of diabetic kidney disease.The Journal of clinical investigation,124(6), 2333-2340. Rosland, A. M., Heisler, M., Piette, J. D. (2012). The impact of family behaviors and communication patterns on chronic illness outcomes: a systematic review.Journal of behavioral medicine,35(2), 221-239. Sellares, J., De Freitas, D. G., Mengel, M., Reeve, J., Einecke, G., Sis, B., ... Halloran, P. F. (2012). Understanding the Causes of Kidney Transplant Failure: The Dominant Role of AntibodyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Mediated Rejection and Nonadherence.American Journal of Transplantation,12(2), 388-399. Vanmassenhove, J., Vanholder, R., Nagler, E., Van Biesen, W. (2013). Urinary and serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury: an in-depth review of the literature.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation,28(2), 254-273.